
Voltage loss at the connection line 
If several resistors are connected in series in a circuit, a portion of the total voltage drops at the individual resistors. This also applies to the connection line, which connects the load to the voltage source.
The wire resistance is in series connection with the load. The voltage drop on the wire that is lost to the load is called the loss voltage. 
Loss Voltage = Cureent ·Wire Resistance



The useful voltage acting on the load corresponds to the terminal voltage minus the voltage loss caused by the line resistance. 
Effective Voltage = Clamping Voltage  Voltage loss



According to the formulathe loss voltage depends on the current I and the line resistance R_{L}_{}. 
 The wire resistance is the greater the length l and the smaller the line cross section A is.


The wire resistance is calculated according to the formula: 
 for one wire length
 for outgoing and return line

The loss voltage is calculated according to the formula: 

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